The plumbing system consists of the entire system of piping, fixtures and appliances used for water supply and drainage. The plumbing water supply system consists of water supply and distribution pipes, taps, valves, storage tanks etc., while plumbing drainage system consists of wash basins, water closets, urinals, traps, soil waste pipes, vent pipes, septic tanks etc.
Types of Water Pipes used in Building
1. PVC Pipes
PVC pipes are used for internal and external water supply system in residential and commercials buildings.
2. Copper Pipes
Copper pipes are used for better grade houses and where ground-water is highly corrosive to steel pipes.
3. Galvanized Iron Pipes
These pipes of heavy, medium and light grade are extensively used for water supply and drainage in residential and commercial building construction as they are economical.
4. Lead Pipes
These pipes are highly corrosion resistant and flexible.
Taps and stop-cocks in buildings are available from iron, brass and chromium plated varieties.
External Water Supply System in Buildings
This system consists of water supply from the source such as bore well, well or water treatment plant to overhead water tanks and from overhead water tanks to the houses. For this, the cast iron pipes or G.I. pipes are used.
Plumbing Drainage System in Buildings
There are 5 types of drainage water pipes used in building construction:
1. Soil Pipe
2. Waste pipe
3. Vent pipe
4. Rainwater pipe
5. Anti-siphon age pipes
1. Soil Pipes and Waste Pipes
These pipes remove sewage and grey water from building and are connected to the common drainage system. They are generally fitted to the exterior of the building.
The main use of soil pipe and waste pipe is the removal of waste from toilets, sinks, showers and baths. These are fitted with vent pipes on the top for the release of odors.
Traditionally, cast-iron soil pipes and waste pipes were used, but these days PVC pipes are more common.
2. Vent Pipe
Vent pipes are attached to the top of soil and waste pipe for the release of bad odors.
3. Rainwater Pipes
These pipes are attached to the roof or open area above building for the removal or collection of rainwater. The rainwater pipes are drawn to the ground level in case of removal or these are connected to the rainwater collection network or tank for rainwater harvesting. These are generally made of PVC material.
3. Anti-Siphonage Pipes
These are connected to the outlets of toilets which are provided to maintain water seal to prevent entry of foul gases of the sewer lines into the toilets and bathrooms. These are made of PVC and their sizes must conform to the respective standard specifications.
Sanitary Fittings used in Buildings
Following are the commonly used sanitary fittings for buildings:
1. Hand wash basins
2. Sinks (glazed or stainless-steel sinks)
3. Bath tubs
4. Water closets
6. Flushing cisterns
Types of Water Closets
Water closets generally used are:
1. Indian type
2. European type or pedestal types
3. Anglo-Indian type
Types of Urinals
1. Bowl type or lip type urinals
2. Stall type
Types of Flushing Cisterns
1. Low level 10 liters capacity
2. High level 10 liters capacity
3. Automatic flushing type for urinals